Heat transfer

Free convection in a glass of water

This model treats free convection in a glass of water. Free convection is a phenomenon that is often disregarded in chemical equipment. Yet, in certain circumstances it can be of great importance, for example, in fermentation processes, casting, and biochemical reactors. Natural convection can also be the leading contributor to transport in small reactors.




Cooling of an injection mold

Cooling is an important process in the production of injection molded plastics. First of all, the cooling time may well represent more than half of the production cycle time. 

Second, a homogeneous cooling process is desired to avoid defects in the manufactured parts. If plastic materials in the injection molding die are cooled down uniformly and slowly, residual stresses can be avoided, and thereby the risk of warps and cracks in the end product can be minimized.

As a consequence, the positioning and properties of the cooling channels become important aspects when designing the mold.